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# About the Author

Benjamin O. Tayo is a data science educator, tutor, coach, mentor, and consultant. Contact me for more information about our services and pricing: benjaminobi@gmail.com

Dr. Tayo has written close to 300 articles and tutorials in data science for educating the general public. Support Dr. Tayo’s educational mission using the links below:

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# INTRODUCTION

Statistical concepts are used widely to extract useful information from data. This article will review essential statistical concepts applicable in data science and machine learning.

# Probability Distribution

A probability distribution shows how feature values are distributed around the mean value. Using the iris dataset, the probability distributions for the sepal length, sepal width, petal length, and petal width can be generated using the code below.

`import numpy as npimport matplotlib.pyplot as pltfrom sklearn import datasetsimport seaborn as snsiris = sns.load_dataset("iris")sns.kdeplot(data=iris)plt.show()`

# Mode

Lets now focus on the sepal length variable. The probability distribution of the sepal length variable is shown below.

We observe that the probability distribution of the sepal length variable has a single maximum, hence it is unimodal. The value of the sepal length where the maximum occurs is the mode, which is about 5.8.

A plot of the probability distribution of the petal width variable is shown below.

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Dr. Tayo is a data science educator, tutor, coach, mentor, and consultant. Contact me for more information about our services and pricing: benjaminobi@gmail.com