# Bayes’ Theorem in Plain English

## Simplest explanation of Bayes’ Theorem

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Assume we have a hypothetical machine learning model that has been used to obtain predicted class values (class 0 and class 1) as shown in Table 1 below.

Our system is a binary system with 2 classes, that is, class 0 and class 1, with a total of 10 rows.

Let’s start by defining some basic probabilities (n = 10):

where

• P(Ye = 1) is the probability that the exact value Ye is 1
• P(Ye = 0) is the probability that the exact value Ye is 0
• P(Yp = 1) is the probability that the predicted value Yp is 1
• P(Yp = 0) is the probability that the predicted value is Yp is 0

## Bayes’ Theorem for Class 1

Now let us focus on the class 1, then from Table 1 above, we define the following conditional probabilities:

where

• P(Yp = 1|Ye = 1) is the conditional probability that the predicted value Yp =1 given that the exact value Ye = 1
• P(Ye = 1|Yp = 1) is the conditional probability that the exact value Ye = 1 given that the predicted value Yp = 1

Putting these together, we have

Let Ye = 1 be event A and Yp = 1 be event B, then we can rewrite the equation above as

## Bayes’ Theorem for Class 0

For class 0, we can define the following conditional probabilities: